1. Required Packages & Supported Platforms¶
GSAS-II requires a standard Python interpreter to be installed, as well as several separately-developed packages. GSAS-II is being developed using Python 3.7 and 3.9. At this point we think that most sections of the code have been exercised in Python 3, but bugs are still expected (please report them). We are no longer testing with Python 2.7 and strongly urge everyone to upgrade, but if problems running GSAS-II in Python 2.7 are reported, we will consider making that the code compliant with both.
Note that the packages listed below are not distributed as part of the Python standard library. We have been depending on the free Anaconda Python (https://www.anaconda.com/) distribution (and provide installers based on that), but Anaconda does not seem to be supplying up to date versions of the wxpython package that the GUI requires and does not have versions for all supported platforms. Use of the miniforge (https://github.com/conda-forge/miniforge) distribution is recommended where needed.
There are many other Python distributions, such as Enthought Inc.’s Canopy and Python(x,y), see here: https://www.python.org/download/alternatives/. We are no longer using any of them and are unsure of how they will function. Some very old GSAS-II installations were based on the quite outdated Enthought Python Distribution (EPD); this is known to have some problems with reading CIFs and we strongly encourage updating from that.
More details on allowed and prefered package versions can be found in
the documentation for variable
1.1. GUI Requirements¶
When using the GSAS-II graphical user interface (GUI), the following Python extension packages are required:
- wxPython (http://wxpython.org/docs/api/). Note that GSAS-II has been tested with wxPython 2.8.x, 3.0.x and 4.0.x. We encourage use of 3.0 with Python 2.7 and 4.x with Python 3.x.
- NumPy (http://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/),
- SciPy (http://docs.scipy.org/doc/scipy/reference/),
- matplotlib (http://matplotlib.org/contents.html) and
- PyOpenGL (http://pyopengl.sourceforge.net/documentation). Note: a copy of this is distributed with GSAS-II (at present) and will be installed if the Python setuptools package is present.
Several packages are used in sections of the code, but are not required. If these packages are not present, warning messages may be generated if they would be needed, but the vast bulk of GSAS-II will function normally.
- Pillow (https://pillow.readthedocs.org) or PIL (http://www.pythonware.com/products/pil/). This is used to save and read certain types of images.
- h5py is the HDF5 interface and hdf5 is the support package. These packages are (not surprisingly) required to import images from HDF5 files. If these libraries are not present, the HDF5 importer(s) will not appear in the import menu and a warning message appears on GSAS-II startup.
- imageio is used to make movies.
- svn: When using Anaconda we also encourage installation of the svn (subversion) conda package. This is not actually part of Python and can be installed directly into your system’s configuration. It is used by GSAS-II to download updates to our code. This can be skipped if svn is installed directly (easy Linux, but a bit harder on MacOS and Windows). In conda-forge this package is called subversion, but at present is only available for Linux.
- pywin32 (windows only): this provides the win32com module that is used to install GSAS-II on windows machines. GSAS-II can be used on Windows without this, but the installation will offer less integration into Windows.
- conda: the conda package allows access to conda features from inside Python. It will be used inceasingly by GSAS-II to self-install software. The conda package is installed by default in miniconda and anaconda but if you create an environment for GSAS-II (conda create -n <env> package-list…), it will not be added unless you request it specifically.
- Conda command:
Here is a typical conda command used to install a GSAS-II compatible Python interpreter:
conda install python=3.9 wxpython numpy scipy matplotlib pyopengl pillow h5py imageio subversion -c conda-forge
or to put a Python configured for GSAS-II into a separate conda environment (here named
g2python, but any name can be used), use command:
conda create -n g2python python=3.9 wxpython numpy scipy matplotlib pyopengl pillow h5py imageio conda subversion -c conda-forge
Note that at present the subversion is only available for Linux, so that should be removed from the commands above. For windows add pywin32 Also, while there is no reason why GSAS-II should not run with Python 3.10, we are not yet providing binaries for this.
Remember to activate using:
source <path>/bin/activate (Mac/Linux). Note that one should add
g2python (etc.) at the end if using a conda environment.
Note that svn seems to be unsupported these days by Anaconda. For Linux and MacOS, use subversion in conda-forge rather than svn. No good solution yet for Windows.
1.2. Scripting Requirements¶
When using the GSAS-II scripting interface (
only the following Python extension packages are required:
- NumPy (http://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/),
- SciPy (http://docs.scipy.org/doc/scipy/reference/).
Note that a few sections of the code require matplotlib (http://matplotlib.org/contents.html), Pillow (https://pillow.readthedocs.org) (or PIL, http://www.pythonware.com/products/pil/), or h5py + hdf5, but none of these are required to run scripts and the vast majority of scripts will not need these packages.
1.3. Optional Packages¶
- Sphinx (https://www.sphinx-doc.org) is used to generate the documentation you are currently reading. Generation of documentation is not generally something needed by users or even most code developers.
- SCons (https://scons.org/) is used to compile the small amount of Fortran code that is included with GSAS-II. Use of this is discussed in the last section of this chapter.
1.4. External and Supplied Programs¶
GSAS-II provides interfaces to use a number of programs developed by others. Some are included with GSAS-II and others must be installed separately. When these programs are accessed, citation information is provided.
GSAS-II includes copies of these programs:
- Simulate layered structures with faulting
- A software library used to read data and structures from CIF
- Model small angle scattering with shaped particles
- NIST FPA
- Use Fundamental Parameters to determine GSAS-II profile function
No additional steps beyond a standard installation are needed to access their functionality.
Bilboa Crystallographic Server: GSAS-II directly access the Bilboa Crystallographic Server (provided the computer has internet access). This allows automated use of the k-SUBGROUPSMAG, k-SUBGROUPS and PseudoLattice web utilities for computation of space group subgroups, color (magnetic) subgroups & lattice search.
At the request of the program authors, these programs are not included with GSAS-II and must be installed separately:
- Large-box PDF & S(Q) fitting. We have heard from users that V6.7.7 of RMCProfile is compatible with the input created by GSAS-II, but not V6.7.9.
- A modern software toolkit for large-box PDF & S(Q) fitting. Use version 5.0 or later. The implementation for this is not completed.
- Computes enhanced Fourier maps with Maximum Entropy estimated extension of reflection sphere
PDFfit2 Small-box fitting of PDFs. This code is no longer supported, but is still quite useful. It can be installed from conda into Python versions up to Python 3.7, but is supplied for Windows within GSAS-II for Python 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9 and for MacOS only with Python 3.7.
For other platforms/Python versions, it is probably best to use a separate Python interpreter.
1.5. Supported Platforms¶
It should be possible to run GSAS-II on any computer where Python 3.7+ and the appropriate required packages are available. For many platforms, binary versions of the Fortran code used in GSAS-II are supplied, but the binaries must match the platform and the major versions of both Python and numpy; even for supported platforms; not all combinations are provided. Should one wish to run GSAS-II where binary files are not supplied, compilation will be needed. This will require the GNU Fortran (gfortran) compiler (https://gcc.gnu.org/fortran/) as well as the Python SCons package. Instructions are supplied for a number of platforms (such as https://subversion.xray.aps.anl.gov/trac/pyGSAS/wiki/InstallLinux#CompilingFortranCode). Note that there are prepackaged versions of GSAS-II for most common platforms. These include Python, all required and most optional packages and a version of all files needed to run GSAS-II – albeit not usually the current version. The installation process will try to update to the current version, if the computer where installation is occuring has internet access.
At present the following platforms are directly supported:
- Windows-10: Installation kits are available for both 32-bit and 64-bit windows. Running GSAS-II on older versions of Windows is likely possible, but to do so one must locate compatible versions of Python and packages. This is getting increasingly tough. We have not tried Windows-11, but expect the Windows-10 versions to run there.
- MacOS: We provide an installer for Macs with Intel processors. This can also be used on ARM-equipped Macs (“M1” or “Apple Silicon” processors) but native M1 code runs way faster. Installation on the native ARM code is more complex; our instructions (https://subversion.xray.aps.anl.gov/trac/pyGSAS/wiki/MacM1Notes) require that the homebrew package installer be installed and then brew (homebrew) be used to install Python and a number of packages. Macs older than Catalina (10.15) may require older distributions of Python.
- Linux (Intel-compatible): GSAS-II does not get a lot of testing in Linux by us, but is fairly widely used on this platform nonetheless. One can use the installer that we provide, but compatibility with older and very new versions of OSes can be tough and may require compatibility libraries. At times it may be better to use the Linux distribution’s versions of Python and packages. This is typically done with a software tool such as apt or yum. An example on how to do this is shown for the Raspberry Pi.
- Raspberry Pi (ARM) Linux: GSAS-II has been installed on both 32-bit and the experimental 64-bit version of the Raspberry Pi OS (formerly called Raspbian) and compiled binaries are provided. It should also run with Ubuntu Linux for this platform, but this has not been tried. It is necessary to use the Raspbian Linux distribution’s versions of Python and its packages. Instructions are provided (https://subversion.xray.aps.anl.gov/trac/pyGSAS/wiki/InstallPiLinux). The performance of GSAS-II on a Raspberry Pi is not blindingly fast, but one can indeed run GSAS-II on a computer that costs only $15!